Living Reviews in Relativity

"The Cosmological Constant"
by
Sean M. Carroll  

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Abstract
1 Introduction
1.1 Truth and beauty
1.2 Introducing the cosmological constant
1.3 Vacuum energy
2 Cosmology with a Cosmological Constant
2.1 Cosmological parameters
2.2 Model universes and their fates
2.3 Surveying the universe
2.4 Structure formation
3 Observational Tests
3.1 Type Ia supernovae
3.2 Cosmic microwave background
3.3 Matter density
3.4 Gravitational lensing
3.5 Other tests
4 Physics Issues
4.1 Supersymmetry
4.2 String theory
4.3 The anthropic principle
4.4 Miscellaneous adjustment mechanisms
4.5 Other sources of dark energy
5 Conclusions: The Preposterous Universe
6 Acknowledgments
Open References References
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