eng
Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute)
Living Reviews in Relativity
1433-8351
2004-09-17
7
9
10.12942/lrr-2004-9
lrr-2004-9
article
Gravitational Lensing from a Spacetime Perspective
Volker Perlick
1
Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB, U.K.
The theory of gravitational lensing is reviewed from a spacetime perspective, without quasi-Newtonian approximations. More precisely, the review covers all aspects of gravitational lensing where light propagation is described in terms of lightlike geodesics of a metric of Lorentzian signature. It includes the basic equations and the relevant techniques for calculating the position, the shape, and the brightness of images in an arbitrary general-relativistic spacetime. It also includes general theorems on the classification of caustics, on criteria for multiple imaging, and on the possible number of images. The general results are illustrated with examples of spacetimes where the lensing features can be explicitly calculated, including the Schwarzschild spacetime, the Kerr spacetime, the spacetime of a straight string, plane gravitational waves, and others.
http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-2004-9
gravitational lenses
differential geometry