solves the same equation. Furthermore, it is clear that there are constants and such that
It is of interest to know what the asymptotic behavior of the remainder is. It turns out that there is a solution to the ordinary wave equation, i.e.,
with zero average, i.e.,
for all , and a function , the average of which is also zero, such that[52, Corollary 11, p. 183] (note that the statement of this result is also to be found in [21, (7a), p. 1675]). In short, given a solution , there are , and as above (and then is uniquely determined). It is of interest to ask if it is possible to go in the other direction. In other words, given , and as above, is there a solution with the above form of asymptotics. The answer to this question is yes; see [78, Proposition 1, p. 1649]. In other words, , and , with properties as above can be considered to be data at the moment of infinite expansion. Using the above information, it is possible to prove that polarized vacuum T3-Gowdy spacetimes are future causally-geodesically complete; see [52, Corollary 21, p. 190].
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