The nonlinear waves were modeled by the equation
The characteristic initial value problem (66) is expressed in standard spherical coordinates and retarded time :
CCM was implemented so that, in the continuum limit, and its normal derivatives would be continuous across the matching interface. The use of a Cartesian discretization in the interior and a spherical discretization in the exterior complicated the treatment of the interface. In particular, the stability of the matching algorithm required careful attention to the details of the intergrid matching. Nevertheless, there was a reasonably broad range of discretization parameters for which CCM was stable.
Two different ways of handling the spherical coordinates were used. One was based upon two overlapping stereographic grid patches and the other upon a multiquadric approximation using a quasi-regular triangulation of the sphere. Both methods gave similar accuracy. The multiquadric method showed a slightly larger range of stability. Also, two separate tactics were used to implement matching, one based upon straightforward interpolations and the other upon maintaining continuity of derivatives in the outward null direction (a generalization of the Sommerfeld condition). Both methods were stable for a reasonable range of grid parameters. The solutions were second-order accurate and the Richardson extrapolation technique could be used to accelerate convergence.
The performance of CCM was compared to traditional ABCs. As expected, the nonlocal ABCs yielded convergent results only in linear problems, and convergence was not observed for local ABCs, whose restrictive assumptions were violated in all of the numerical experiments. The computational cost of CCM was much lower than that of current nonlocal boundary conditions. In strongly nonlinear problems, CCM appears to be the only available method, which is able to produce numerical solutions that converge to the exact solution with a fixed boundary.
Living Rev. Relativity 15, (2012), 2
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