Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors

Stefan L. Danilishin 
School of Physics, University of Western Australia,
35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley 6009, Australia
and
Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University
Moscow 119991, Russia

and
Farid Ya. Khalili 
Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University
Moscow 119991, Russia

Abstract

The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.


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