Living Reviews in Relativity

"Gravitational Lensing in Astronomy"
by
Joachim Wambsganss  

Hide Subsections

Abstract
1 Introduction
2 History of Gravitational Lensing
3 Basics of Gravitational Lensing
3.1 Lens equation
3.2 Einstein radius
3.3 Critical surface mass density
3.4 Image positions and magnifications
3.5 (Non-)Singular isothermal sphere
3.6 Lens mapping
3.7 Time delay and “Fermat’s” theorem
4 Lensing Phenomena
4.1 Multiply-imaged quasars
4.2 Quasar microlensing
4.3 Einstein rings
4.4 Giant luminous arcs and arclets
4.5 Weak/statistical lensing
4.6 Cosmological aspects of (strong) lensing
4.7 Galactic microlensing
5 Future Gravitational Lensing
6 Acknowledgements
Open References References
Footnotes
Updates
Figures