# Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

**Update available:
http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-2012-7**

**Markus Heusler
**

ITP, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich

http://www-theorie.physik.unizh.ch/~heusler/

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Abstract

The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has
increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not
all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and
global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum
black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims
to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness
theorem for the Einstein–Maxwell system.