Figure 1:
Dynamics for . The arrows indicate the direction of evolution of the parameters in an expanding universe. 

Figure 2:
Expansion histories for different values of and . From top to bottom, the curves describe , , , and . 

Figure 3:
Hubble diagram (distance modulus vs. redshift) from the HighZ Supernova Team [212]. The lines represent predictions from the cosmological models with the specified parameters. The lower plot indicates the difference between observed distance modulus and that predicted in an openuniverse model. 

Figure 4:
Hubble diagram from the Supernova Cosmology Project [197]. The bottom plot shows the number of standard deviations of each point from the bestfit curve. 

Figure 5:
Constraints in the – plane from the HighZ Supernova Team [212]. 

Figure 6:
Constraints in the – plane from the Supernova Cosmology Project [197]. 

Figure 7:
CMB data (binned) and two theoretical curves: The model with a peak at is a flat matterdominated universe, while the one with a peak at is an open matterdominated universe. From [35]. 

Figure 8:
Constraints in the – plane from the North American flight of the BOOMERANG microwave background balloon experiment. From [171]. 

Figure 9:
Gravitational lens probabilities in a flat universe with , relative to , , for a source at . 

Figure 10:
Limits from supernovae and largescale structure data on and the equationofstate parameter , in a flat universe dominated by matter and dark energy. Thin contours (on the left) represent limits from CMB and largescale structure measurements, while thick contours are those from SNe observations; solid lines apply to models with constant , while dashed lines apply to models of dynamical scalar fields. The constraints are portrayed separately on the left, and combined on the right. From [196]. 

Figure 11:
as a function of the scale factor , for a universe in which , . Indicated are the scale factors corresponding to the Planck era, the electroweak phase transition, and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. 
http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr20011 
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