List of Figures

View Image Figure 1:
Dynamics for Ω = ΩM + ΩΛ. The arrows indicate the direction of evolution of the parameters in an expanding universe.
View Image Figure 2:
Expansion histories for different values of ΩM and Ω Λ. From top to bottom, the curves describe (ΩM, Ω Λ) = (0.3,0.7), (0.3,0.0), (1.0, 0.0), and (4.0,0.0).
View Image Figure 3:
Hubble diagram (distance modulus vs. redshift) from the High-Z Supernova Team [212]. The lines represent predictions from the cosmological models with the specified parameters. The lower plot indicates the difference between observed distance modulus and that predicted in an open-universe model.
View Image Figure 4:
Hubble diagram from the Supernova Cosmology Project [197]. The bottom plot shows the number of standard deviations of each point from the best-fit curve.
View Image Figure 5:
Constraints in the ΩMΩ Λ plane from the High-Z Supernova Team [212].
View Image Figure 6:
Constraints in the ΩMΩ Λ plane from the Supernova Cosmology Project [197].
View Image Figure 7:
CMB data (binned) and two theoretical curves: The model with a peak at l ∼ 200 is a flat matter-dominated universe, while the one with a peak at l ∼ 400 is an open matter-dominated universe. From [35].
View Image Figure 8:
Constraints in the ΩMΩΛ plane from the North American flight of the BOOMERANG microwave background balloon experiment. From [171].
View Image Figure 9:
Gravitational lens probabilities in a flat universe with ΩM + Ω Λ = 1, relative to ΩM = 1, Ω Λ = 0, for a source at z = 2.
View Image Figure 10:
Limits from supernovae and large-scale structure data on ΩM and the equation-of-state parameter wX, in a flat universe dominated by matter and dark energy. Thin contours (on the left) represent limits from CMB and large-scale structure measurements, while thick contours are those from SNe observations; solid lines apply to models with constant wX, while dashed lines apply to models of dynamical scalar fields. The constraints are portrayed separately on the left, and combined on the right. From [196].
View Image Figure 11:
Ω Λ as a function of the scale factor a, for a universe in which ΩM0 = 0.3, Ω Λ0 = 0.7. Indicated are the scale factors corresponding to the Planck era, the electroweak phase transition, and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.