Dynamics for . The arrows indicate the direction of evolution of the parameters in an expanding universe.
Expansion histories for different values of and . From top to bottom, the curves describe , , , and .
Hubble diagram (distance modulus vs. redshift) from the High-Z Supernova Team . The lines represent predictions from the cosmological models with the specified parameters. The lower plot indicates the difference between observed distance modulus and that predicted in an open-universe model.
Hubble diagram from the Supernova Cosmology Project . The bottom plot shows the number of standard deviations of each point from the best-fit curve.
Constraints in the – plane from the High-Z Supernova Team .
Constraints in the – plane from the Supernova Cosmology Project .
CMB data (binned) and two theoretical curves: The model with a peak at is a flat matter-dominated universe, while the one with a peak at is an open matter-dominated universe. From .
Constraints in the – plane from the North American flight of the BOOMERANG microwave background balloon experiment. From .
Gravitational lens probabilities in a flat universe with , relative to , , for a source at .
Limits from supernovae and large-scale structure data on and the equation-of-state parameter , in a flat universe dominated by matter and dark energy. Thin contours (on the left) represent limits from CMB and large-scale structure measurements, while thick contours are those from SNe observations; solid lines apply to models with constant , while dashed lines apply to models of dynamical scalar fields. The constraints are portrayed separately on the left, and combined on the right. From .
as a function of the scale factor , for a universe in which , . Indicated are the scale factors corresponding to the Planck era, the electroweak phase transition, and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.
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