4.5 Gravitational wave detection4 Strong Gravity and Gravitational 4.3 Einstein's equations in ``relaxed''

4.4 Equations of motion and gravitational waveform 

Among the results of these approaches are formulae for the equations of motion and gravitational waveform of binary systems of compact objects, carried out to high orders in a PN expansion. Here we shall only state the key formulae that will be needed for this article. For example, the relative two-body equation of motion has the form


where tex2html_wrap_inline5085 is the total mass, tex2html_wrap_inline5087, tex2html_wrap_inline5089, and tex2html_wrap_inline5091 . The notation tex2html_wrap_inline5093 indicates that the term is tex2html_wrap_inline5095 relative to the Newtonian term tex2html_wrap_inline5097 . Explicit formulae for terms through various orders have been calculated by various authors: non-radiative terms through 2PN order [40, 38, 72, 39, 27], radiation reaction terms at 2.5PN and 3.5PN order [78, 79, 17], and non-radiative 3PN terms [80, 81, 46, 26, 25]. Here we quote only the first PN corrections and the leading radiation-reaction terms at 2.5PN order:


where tex2html_wrap_inline5099 . These terms are sufficient to analyse the orbit and evolution of the binary pulsar (Sec.  5.1). For example, the 1PN terms are responsible for the periastron advance of an eccentric orbit, given by tex2html_wrap_inline5101, where a and e are the semi-major axis and eccentricity, respectively, of the orbit, and tex2html_wrap_inline5107 is the orbital frequency, given to the needed order by Kepler's third law tex2html_wrap_inline5109 .

Another product is a formula for the gravitational field far from the system, written schematically in the form


where R is the distance from the source, and the variables are to be evaluated at retarded time t - R . The leading term is the so-called quadrupole formula


where tex2html_wrap_inline5115 is the quadrupole moment of the source, and overdots denote time derivatives. For a binary system this leads to


For binary systems, explicit formulae for all the terms through 2.5PN order have been derived by various authors [135Jump To The Next Citation Point In The Article, 155, 106, 23Jump To The Next Citation Point In The Article, 24Jump To The Next Citation Point In The Article, 152Jump To The Next Citation Point In The Article, 16, 18]. Given the gravitational waveform, one can compute the rate at which energy is carried off by the radiation (schematically tex2html_wrap_inline5117, the gravitational analog of the Poynting flux). The lowest-order quadrupole formula leads to the gravitational wave energy flux


Formulae for fluxes of angular and linear momentum can also be derived. The 2.5PN radiation-reaction terms in the equation of motion (48Popup Equation) result in a damping of the orbital energy that precisely balances the energy flux (54Popup Equation) determined from the waveform. Averaged over one orbit, this results in a rate of increase of the binary's orbital frequency given by


where tex2html_wrap_inline5119 is the so-called ``chirp'' mass, given by tex2html_wrap_inline5121, and tex2html_wrap_inline5123 . Notice that by making precise measurements of the phase tex2html_wrap_inline5125 of either the orbit or the gravitational waves (for which tex2html_wrap_inline5127 for the dominant component) as a function of the frequency, one in effect measures the ``chirp'' mass of the system.

These formalisms have also been generalized to include the leading effects of spin-orbit and spin-spin coupling between the bodies [83, 82].

Another approach to gravitational radiation is applicable to the special limit in which one mass is much smaller than the other. This is the method of black-hole perturbation theory. One begins with an exact background spacetime of a black hole, either the non-rotating Schwarzschild or the rotating Kerr solution, and perturbs it according to tex2html_wrap_inline5129 . The particle moves on a geodesic of the background spacetime, and a suitably defined source stress-energy tensor for the particle acts as a source for the gravitational perturbation and wave field tex2html_wrap_inline4253 . This method provides numerical results that are exact in v, as well as analytical results expressed as series in powers of v, both for non-rotating and for rotating black holes. For non-rotating holes, the analytical expansions have been carried to 5.5PN order, or tex2html_wrap_inline5137 beyond the quadrupole approximation. All results of black hole perturbation agree precisely with the tex2html_wrap_inline5139 limit of the PN results, up to the highest PN order where they can be compared (for a detailed review see [93]).

4.5 Gravitational wave detection4 Strong Gravity and Gravitational 4.3 Einstein's equations in ``relaxed''

image The Confrontation between General Relativity and Experiment
Clifford M. Will
© Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. ISSN 1433-8351
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