Perturbative Quantum Gravity
and its Relation to Gauge Theory

Zvi Bern
Department of Physics and Astronomy
University of California at Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA 90095, U.S.A.

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In this review we describe a non-trivial relationship between perturbative gauge theory and gravity scattering amplitudes. At the semi-classical or tree-level, the scattering amplitudes of gravity theories in flat space can be expressed as a sum of products of well defined pieces of gauge theory amplitudes. These relationships were first discovered by Kawai, Lewellen, and Tye in the context of string theory, but hold more generally. In particular, they hold for standard Einstein gravity. A method based on D-dimensional unitarity can then be used to systematically construct all quantum loop corrections order-by-order in perturbation theory using as input the gravity tree amplitudes expressed in terms of gauge theory ones. More generally, the unitarity method provides a means for perturbatively quantizing massless gravity theories without the usual formal apparatus associated with the quantization of constrained systems. As one application, this method was used to demonstrate that maximally supersymmetric gravity is less divergent in the ultraviolet than previously thought.

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