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4.1 Collapse scenario

Without winds, stars above ~ 40- 50Mo . will not produce supernova explosions, but collapse directly to black holes [78Jump To The Next Citation Point]. Stars above ~ 20 -25 Mo . are believed to produce only weak supernova explosions. These explosions are unable to eject all of the star’s mantle, and will ultimately also collapse to black holes as this mantle falls back onto the core [78]. If these stars are rotating, they will develop accretion disks around the newly formed black hole, opening up new ways to produce both GWs and baryonic explosions.

These black hole accretion disks formed by stellar collapse are currently the favored engine behind long-duration gamma-ray bursts [262160]. It is believed that either neutrinos rising from the disk annihilate and drive an explosion or magnetic fields wound up in the disk can produce jets that then evolve into the highly relativistic outflows observed in the GRBs [195]. Relativistic and magnetic field effects are far more important in these calculations than those for normal stellar collapse models. And yet, most simulations of GRBs to date do not include the detailed microphysics, magnetic fields (although see Proga and collaborators [196]), and relativity at the same level of sophistication as the simulations of core-collapse supernovae. Even so, this topic has garnered some interest in the GW community and this interest will only grow as the simulations become more accurate.


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