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12.2 The effective mass of Kulkarni, Chellathurai, and Dadhich for the Kerr spacetime

The Kulkarni-Chellathurai-Dadhich [244] effective mass for the Kerr spacetime is obtained from the Komar integral (i.e. the linkage with a = 0) using a hypersurface orthogonal vector field Xa instead of the Killing vector a T of stationarity. The vector field a X is defined to be a a T + wP, where a P is the Killing vector of axi-symmetry and the function w is - g(T,P)/g(P, P). This is timelike outside the horizon, it is the asymptotic time translation at infinity, and coincides with the null tangent on the event horizon. On the event horizon r = r+ it yields V~ -------- MKCD = m2 - a2, while in the limit r-- > oo it is the mass parameter m of the solution. The effective mass is computed for the Kerr-Newman spacetime in [106].
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