Figure 1:
Schematic of confinement of matter to the brane, while gravity propagates in the bulk (from [51]). 

Figure 2:
The RS 2brane model. (Figure taken from [58].) 

Figure 3:
Gravitational field of a small point particle on the brane in RS gauge. (Figure taken from [106].) 

Figure 4:
The evolution of the dimensionless shear parameter on a Bianchi I brane, for a model. The early and latetime expansion of the universe is isotropic, but the shear dominates during an intermediate anisotropic stage. (Figure taken from [221].) 

Figure 5:
The relation between the inflaton mass () and the brane tension necessary to satisfy the COBE constraints. The straight line is the approximation used in Equation (214), which at high energies is in excellent agreement with the exact solution, evaluated numerically in slowroll. (Figure taken from [222].) 

Figure 6:
Constraints from WMAP data on inflation models with quadratic and quartic potentials, where is the ratio of tensor to scalar amplitudes and is the scalar spectral index. The high energy (H.E.) and low energy (L.E.) limits are shown, with intermediate energies in between, and the 1 and 2 contours are also shown. (Figure taken from [203].) 

Figure 7:
Braneworld instanton. (Figure taken from [105].) 

Figure 8:
The evolution of the covariant variable , defined in Equation (298) (and not to be confused with the Bardeen potential), along a fundamental worldline. This is a mode that is well beyond the Hubble horizon at , about 50 efolds before inflation ends, and remains superHubble through the radiation era. A smooth transition from inflation to radiation is modelled by , where is a small positive parameter (chosen as in the plot). Labels on the curves indicate the value of , so that the general relativistic solution is the dashed curve (). (Figure taken from [122].) 

Figure 9:
The evolution of in the radiation era, with dark radiation present in the background. (Figure taken from [131].) 

Figure 10:
Graviton “volcano” potential around the brane, showing the mass gap. (Figure taken from [190].) 

Figure 11:
Damping of braneworld gravity waves on horizon reentry due to massive mode generation. The solid curve is the numerical solution, the shortdashed curve the lowenergy approximation, and the longdashed curve the standard general relativity solution. and is a parameter giving the location of the regulator brane. (Figure taken from [142].) 

Figure 12:
The CMB power spectrum with braneworld effects, encoded in the dark radiation fluctuation parameter as a proportion of the largescale curvature perturbation for matter (denoted in the plot). (Figure taken from [177].) 

Figure 13:
The CMB power spectrum with braneworld moduli effects from the field in Equation (385). The curves are labelled with the initial value of . (Figure taken from [38, 268].) 
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