List of Figures

View Image Figure 1:
Schematic of confinement of matter to the brane, while gravity propagates in the bulk (from [51]).
View Image Figure 2:
The RS 2-brane model. (Figure taken from [58].)
View Image Figure 3:
Gravitational field of a small point particle on the brane in RS gauge. (Figure taken from [106].)
View Image Figure 4:
The evolution of the dimensionless shear parameter Ωshear = σ2 ∕6H2 on a Bianchi I brane, for a V = 12m2 φ2 model. The early and late-time expansion of the universe is isotropic, but the shear dominates during an intermediate anisotropic stage. (Figure taken from [221].)
View Image Figure 5:
The relation between the inflaton mass m ∕M 4 (M ≡ M 4 p) and the brane tension 4 1∕4 (λ∕M 4) necessary to satisfy the COBE constraints. The straight line is the approximation used in Equation (214View Equation), which at high energies is in excellent agreement with the exact solution, evaluated numerically in slow-roll. (Figure taken from [222].)
View Image Figure 6:
Constraints from WMAP data on inflation models with quadratic and quartic potentials, where R is the ratio of tensor to scalar amplitudes and n is the scalar spectral index. The high energy (H.E.) and low energy (L.E.) limits are shown, with intermediate energies in between, and the 1-σ and 2-σ contours are also shown. (Figure taken from [203].)
View Image Figure 7:
Brane-world instanton. (Figure taken from [105].)
View Image Figure 8:
The evolution of the covariant variable Φ, defined in Equation (298View Equation) (and not to be confused with the Bardeen potential), along a fundamental world-line. This is a mode that is well beyond the Hubble horizon at N = 0, about 50 e-folds before inflation ends, and remains super-Hubble through the radiation era. A smooth transition from inflation to radiation is modelled by w = 13 [(2 − 32ε)tanh (N − 50) − (1 − 32ε)], where ε is a small positive parameter (chosen as ε = 0.1 in the plot). Labels on the curves indicate the value of ρ0∕ λ, so that the general relativistic solution is the dashed curve (ρ ∕λ = 0 0). (Figure taken from [122].)
View Image Figure 9:
The evolution of Φ in the radiation era, with dark radiation present in the background. (Figure taken from [131].)
View Image Figure 10:
Graviton “volcano” potential around the dS4 brane, showing the mass gap. (Figure taken from [190].)
View Image Figure 11:
Damping of brane-world gravity waves on horizon re-entry due to massive mode generation. The solid curve is the numerical solution, the short-dashed curve the low-energy approximation, and the long-dashed curve the standard general relativity solution. εℰ = ρ0∕λ and γ is a parameter giving the location of the regulator brane. (Figure taken from [142].)
View Image Figure 12:
The CMB power spectrum with brane-world effects, encoded in the dark radiation fluctuation parameter δC∗ as a proportion of the large-scale curvature perturbation for matter (denoted ζ∗ in the plot). (Figure taken from [177].)
View Image Figure 13:
The CMB power spectrum with brane-world moduli effects from the field χ in Equation (385View Equation). The curves are labelled with the initial value of χ. (Figure taken from [38, 268].)