List of Figures

View Image Figure 1:
Evolution of the cosmic scale factor as a function of H0 (t − t0). The present value of the scale factor a0 is set to unity; solid line: (Ωm, Ω Λ) = (0.3,1.7 ), dotted line: (0.3,0.7), dot-dashed line: (0.3,0.0), long dashed line: (1.0, 0.0), short dashed line: (3.0,0.0 ).
View Image Figure 2:
Linear growth rate of density fluctuations.
View Image Figure 3:
One-point PDFs in CDM models with Gaussian (left panels) and top-hat (right panels) smoothing windows: R = 2h −1 Mpc (cyan), 6h− 1 Mpc (red), and 18h −1 Mpc (green). The solid and long-dashed lines represent the log-normal PDF adopting σnl calculated directly from the simulations and estimated from the nonlinear fitting formula of [67], respectively. (Figure taken from [40].)
View Image Figure 4:
Isodensity surfaces of dark matter distribution from N-body simulation: LCDM in (100h −1 Mpc )3 at ν = − 1.0 (upper left panel), ν = 0.0 (upper right panel), ν = 1.0 (lower left panel), and ν = 1.7 (lower right panel). (Figure taken from [54].)
View Image Figure 5:
Top-view of distribution of objects at z = 0 in real (left panels) and redshift (right panels) spaces around the fiducial observer at the center: dark matter particles (top panels), peaks with ν > 2 (middle panels), and halos with M > 1.3 × 1012M ⊙ (bottom panels) in the LCDM model. The thickness of those slices is 15h −1 Mpc. (Figure taken from [86].)
View Image Figure 6:
Same as Figure 5, but at z = 2.2. (Figure taken from [86].)
View Image Figure 7:
Auto- and cross-correlation functions of dark matter and peaks in SCDM (left panels), LCDM (middle panels), and OCDM (right panels) for (a) z = 0 (upper panels) and (b) z = 2.2 (lower panels). Different symbols indicate the results in real space (open squares for ν > 3, filled triangles for ν > 2, open circles for ν > 1, and crosses for dark matter), while different curves indicate those in redshift space (dashed for ν > 3, dot-dashed for ν > 2, solid for ν > 1, and dotted for dark matter). (Figure taken from [86].)
View Image Figure 8:
Same as Figure 7, but for a halo model, again for (a) z = 0 (upper panels) and (b) z = 2.2 (lower panels): Open squares and dashed lines for 13 − 1 M > 10 h M ⊙, filled triangles and dot-dashed lines for 12 −1 M > 5 × 10 h M ⊙, open circles and solid lines for 12 − 1 M > 2 × 10 h M ⊙, and crosses and dotted lines for dark matter. For the SCDM model, we only plot the correlation functions with Mth = 5 × 1012h−1M ⊙ and Mth = 1013h−1M ⊙. (Figure taken from [86].)
View Image Figure 9:
Distribution of gas particles (upper right panel), dark matter particles (upper left panel), galaxies (lower right panel), and dark halos (lower left panel) in the volume of a 3 75h −1 × 75h− 1 × 30h −1 Mpc model at z = 0. (Figure taken from [103].)
View Image Figure 10:
Snapshots of the most massive cluster (14 M ≃ 8 × 10 M ⊙) in the simulation at z = 0. Upper left panel: dark matter; upper right panel: gas; lower left panel: DM cores; lower right panel: cold gas. The circles in the lower panels indicate the positions of galaxies identified according to our criteria. The comoving size of the box is 6.25h −1 Mpc per side. (Figure taken from [103].)
View Image Figure 11:
Joint probability distributions of overdensity fields for dark halos and galaxies with dark matter overdensity smoothed over −1 Rs = 12h Mpc at redshift z = 0, 1, and 2. Solid lines indicate the conditional mean ¯ δi(δm ) for each object. Dashed lines in each panel depict the theoretical prediction of conditional mean by Taruya and Suto [87]. (Figure taken from [103].)
View Image Figure 12:
Two-point correlation functions of dark matter, galaxies, and dark halos from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. (Figure taken from [103].)
View Image Figure 13:
Two-point correlation functions for the old and young populations of galaxies at z = 0 as well as that of the dark matter distribution. The profiles of bias parameters b (r) ξ for both of the two populations are also shown in the lower panel. (Figure taken from [103].)
View Image Figure 14:
Mass two-point correlation functions on the light-cone for particles with redshift-dependent selection functions in the SCDM model, for z < 0.4 (upper panels) and 0.2 < z < 2.0 (lower panels). Left panels: with selection function whose shape is the same as that of the B-band magnitude limit of 19 for galaxies (upper) and 21 for QSOs (lower); right panels: randomly selected N ∼ 104 particles from the particles in the results from the left panels. (Figure taken from [28].)
View Image Figure 15:
Same as Figure 14 but for the Λ-CDM model. (Figure taken from [28].)
View Image Figure 16:
Two-dimensional power spectra in cosmological redshift space at z = 2.2. (Figure taken from [46].)
View Image Figure 17:
The confidence contours on the Ωm-Ω Λ plane from the 2 χ-analysis of the monopole and quadrupole moments of the power spectrum in the cosmological redshift space at z = 2.2. We randomly selected N = 5 × 103 (upper panels), N = 5 × 104 (middle panels), and N = 5 × 105 (lower panels) particles from N-body simulation. The value of σ 8 is adopted from the cluster abundance. (Figure taken from [46].)
View Image Figure 18:
Light-cone and cosmological redshift-space distortion effects on angle-averaged power spectra. (Figure taken from [84].)
View Image Figure 19:
Same as Figure 18 on angle-averaged two-point correlation functions. (Figure taken from [84].)
View Image Figure 20:
The 2dFGRS fields (small circles) superimposed on the APM catalogue area (dotted outlines of Sky Survey plates).
View Image Figure 21:
The distribution of 63,000 2dFGRS galaxies in the NGP (left panel) and SGP (right panel) strips.
View Image Figure 22:
3D redshift-space map centered on us, and its projection on the celestial sphere of SDSS galaxy subset, including the three main regions. (Figure taken from [32].)
View Image Figure 23:
Redshift slices of SDSS galaxy data around the equatorial plane. The redshift limits and the thickness of the planes are z < 0.05 and 10h −1 Mpc (upper panel), z < 0.1 and −1 15h Mpc (middle panel), and z < 0.2 and −1 20h Mpc (lower panel). The size of points has been adjusted. Note that the data for the Southern part are sparser than those for the Northern part, especially for thick slices. (Figure taken from [32].)
View Image Figure 24:
The power spectrum of the 2dFGRS. The points with error bars show the measured 2dFGRS power spectrum measurements in redshift space, convolved with the window function. Also plotted are linear CDM models with neutrino contribution of Ων = 0, Ω ν = 0.01, and Ω ν = 0.05 (bottom to top lines). The other parameters are fixed to the concordance model. The good fit of the linear theory power spectrum at k > 0.15h Mpc −1 is due to a conspiracy between the non-linear gravitational growth and the finger-of-God smearing [72]. (Figure taken from [20].)
View Image Figure 25:
The variation of the galaxy biasing parameter with luminosity, relative to an L ∗ galaxy for the full sample and for subsamples of early and late spectra types. (Figure taken from [61].)
View Image Figure 26:
The two point correlation function ξ(σ,π) plotted for passively (left panel) and actively (right panel) star-forming galaxies. The line contours levels show the best-fitting model. (Figure taken from [45].)
View Image Figure 27:
The correlation function for early and late spectral types. The solid lines show best-fitting models, whereas the dashes lines are extrapolations of these lines. (Figure taken from [45].)
View Image Figure 28:
The SDSS (EDR) projected correlation function for blue (squares), red (triangles) and the full sample, with best-fitting models over the range 0.1 < r < 16h− 1 Mpc p (upper panel), and the SDSS (EDR) projected correlation function for three volume-limited samples, with absolute magnitude and redshift ranges as indicated and best-fitting power-law models (lower panel). (Figure taken from [104].)
View Image Figure 29:
Dimensionless amplitude of the three-point correlation functions of SDSS galaxies in redshift space. The galaxies are classified according to their colors; all galaxies in open circles, red galaxies in solid triangles, and blue galaxies in crosses. (Figure taken from [39].)
View Image Figure 30:
Same as Figure 29, but for the inverse of the biasing parameter defined through the two-point correlation functions. (Figure taken from [39].)
View Image Figure 31:
MFs as a function of νf for RG = 5h −1 Mpc for SDSS data. Averaged MFs of the mock samples are plotted for LCDM (solid lines) and SCDM (long dashed lines). Gaussian model predictions (see Equations (112View Equation, 113View Equation, 114View Equation, 115View Equation)) are also plotted with short dashed lines. The results favor the LCDM model with random–Gaussian initial conditions. (Figure taken from [32].)