Quantum Gravity in 2+1 Dimensions:
The Case of a Closed Universe

Steven Carlip
Department of Physics
University of California
Davis, CA 95616

External Linkhttp://www.physics.ucdavis.edu/Text/Carlip.html


In three spacetime dimensions, general relativity drastically simplifies, becoming a “topological” theory with no propagating local degrees of freedom. Nevertheless, many of the difficult conceptual problems of quantizing gravity are still present. In this review, I summarize the rather large body of work that has gone towards quantizing (2+1)-dimensional vacuum gravity in the setting of a spatially closed universe.

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