### 4.10 Anisotropy: Implications for inhomogeneities

Even without implementing inhomogeneous models the previous discussion allows some tentative
conclusions as to the structure of general singularities. This is based on the BKL picture [31] whose basic
idea is to study Einstein’s field equations close to a singularity. One can then argue that spatial derivatives
become subdominant compared to time-like derivatives such that the approach should locally be described
by homogeneous models, in particular the Bianchi IX model since it has the most freedom in its general
solution.
Since spatial derivatives are present, though, they lead to small corrections and couple the
geometries in different spatial points. One can visualize this by starting with an initial slice
which is approximated by a collection of homogeneous patches. For some time, each patch
evolves independently of the others, but this is not precisely true since coupling effects have been
ignored. Moreover, each patch geometry evolves in a chaotic manner, which means that two
initially nearby geometries depart rapidly from each other. The approximation can thus be
maintained only if the patches are subdivided during the evolution, which goes on without limits
in the approach to the singularity. There is, thus, more and more inhomogeneous structure
being generated on arbitrarily small scales, which leads to a complicated picture of a general
singularity.

This picture can be taken over to the effective behavior of the Bianchi IX model. Here, the patches do
not evolve chaotically even though at larger volume they follow the classical behavior. The subdivision thus
has to be done also for the initial effective evolution. At some point, however, when reflections on the
potential walls stop, the evolution simplifies and subdivisions are no longer necessary. There is thus a lower
bound to the scale of structure whose precise value depends on the initial geometries. Nevertheless, from the
scale at which the potential walls break down one can show that structure formation stops at the latest
when the discreteness scale of quantum geometry is reached [60]. This can be seen as a consistency
test of the theory since structure below the discreteness could not be supported by quantum
geometry.

We have thus a glimpse on the inhomogeneous situation with a complicated but consistent approach to a
general classical singularity. The methods involved, however, are not very robust since the BKL scenario,
which even classically is still at the level of a conjecture for the general case [32, 168], would need to be
available as an approximation to quantum geometry. For more reliable results the methods need to be
refined to take into account inhomogeneities properly.