At this point, one has to find an alternative route to the quantization of , or else one could only conclude that there is no well-defined quantization of matter Hamiltonians as a manifestation of the classical divergence. In the case of loop quantum cosmology it turns out, following a general scheme of the full theory , that one can reformulate the classical expression in an equivalent way such that quantization becomes possible. One possibility is to write, similarly to (13)
where we use holonomies of isotropic connections and the volume . In this expression we can insert holonomies as multiplication operators and the volume operator, and turn the Poisson bracket into a commutator. The result
Rewriting a classical expression in such a manner can always be done in many equivalent ways, which in general all lead to different operators. In the case of , we highlight the choice of the representation in which to take the trace (understood as the fundamental representation above) and the power of in the Poisson bracket ( above). This freedom can be parameterized by two ambiguity parameters for the representation and for the power such that
Following the same procedure as above, we obtain eigenvalues [47, 50]
which, for larger , can be approximated by (25), see also Figure 9. This provides the basis for loop cosmology as described in Section 4.
© Max Planck Society and the author(s)