
Abstract 
1 
Introduction 

1.1 
A brief history 

1.2 
A little cosmology 
2 
Local
Methods and Cepheid Variables 

2.1 
Preliminary remarks 

2.2 
Basic
principle 

2.3 
Problems and comments 

2.4 
Independent local distancescale
methods 

2.5 
H_{0}: 62 or 73? 
3 
The CMB and Cosmological Estimates of
the Distance Scale 

3.1 
The physics of the anisotropy spectrum and
its implications 

3.2 
Degeneracies and implications for H_{0} 
4 
OneStep
Distance Methods 

4.1 
Gravitational lenses 

4.2 
The Sunyaev–Zel’dovich
effect 

4.3 
Gravitational waves 
5 
Conclusion 
6 
Acknowledgements 
A 
A
Highly Subjective Summary of the Gravitational Lens Time Delays
to Date and the Derived Values of the Hubble Constant 

References 

Footnotes 

Figures 