2 Theory

In this section we describe the basic theory underlying critical collapse of the type that forms arbitrarily small black holes (later called type II, see also Section 2.4). We begin with the mathematical origin of its three main characteristics, which were already summarised in the introduction:

 2.1 Universality
 2.2 Self-similarity
 2.3 Mass scaling
 2.4 Type I
 2.5 Coordinate choices for the dynamical systems picture
 2.6 Approximate self-similarity and universality classes
 2.7 The analogy with critical phase transitions

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