Living Reviews in Relativity

"Physics of Neutron Star Crusts"
by
Nicolas Chamel and Pawel Haensel  

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Abstract
1 Introduction
2 Plasma Parameters
2.1 No magnetic field
2.2 Effects of magnetic fields
3 The Ground State Structure of Neutron Star Crusts
3.1 Structure of the outer crust
3.2 Structure of the inner crust
3.3 Pastas
3.4 Impurities and defects
4 Accreting Neutron Star Crusts
4.1 Accreting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries
4.2 Nuclear processes and formation of accreted crusts
4.3 Deep crustal heating
4.4 Thermal structure of accreted crusts and X-ray bursts
5 Equation of State
5.1 Ground state crust
5.2 Accreted crust
5.3 Effect of magnetic fields on the EoS
5.4 Supernova core at subnuclear density
6 Crust in Global Neutron Star Structure
6.1 Spherical nonrotating neutron stars
6.2 Approximate formulae
6.3 Crust in rotating neutron stars
6.4 Effects of magnetic fields on the crust structure
7 Elastic Properties
7.1 Isotropic solid (polycrystal)
7.2 Nuclear pasta
8 Superfluidity and Superconductivity
8.1 Superconductivity in neutron star crusts
8.2 Static properties of neutron superfluidity
8.3 Superfluid hydrodynamics
9 Conductivity and Viscosity
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Boltzmann equation for electrons and its solutions
9.3 Thermal and electrical conductivities
9.4 Viscosity
9.5 Transport in the presence of strong magnetic fields
10 Macroscopic Model of Neutron Star Crusts
10.1 Variational formulation of multi-fluid hydrodynamics
10.2 Two-fluid model of neutron star crust
10.3 Entrainment and effective masses
10.4 Neutron superfluidity
11 Neutrino Emission
11.1 Neutrino emission processes – an overview
11.2 Electron-positron pair annihilation
11.3 Plasmon decay
11.4 Photoneutrino emission
11.5 Neutrino Bremsstrahlung from electron-nucleus collisions
11.6 Cooper pairing of neutrons
11.7 Synchrotron radiation from electrons
11.8 Other neutrino emission mechanisms
11.9 Neutrinos from the crust – summary in the T − ρ plane
12 Observational Constraints on Neutron Star Crusts
12.1 Supernovae and the physics of hot dense inhomogeneous matter
12.2 Cooling of isolated neutron stars
12.3 r-process in the decompression of cold neutron star crusts
12.4 Pulsar glitches
12.5 Gravitational wave asteroseismology
12.6 Giant flares from Soft Gamma Repeaters
12.7 Low mass X-ray binaries
13 Conclusion
14 Acknowledgments
A List of Notations
B List of Abbreviations
Open References References
Footnotes
Figures
Tables