1 | Lattice energy including finite size effects is given by Equation (41). Even at the bottom of the outer crust finite size effects represent a small correction to the lattice energy, less than 1%. | |
2 | “free” means here that the electrons are not bound. However, they are interacting with other electrons and with the atomic lattice. | |
3 | We restrict ourselves to type I X-ray bursts. There are two X-ray bursters that are of type II, with bursts driven not by thermonuclear flashes on the neutron star surface, but originating in the accretion disk itself. | |
4 | In this section, by “energy” we will usually mean energy of a unit volume (i.e. energy density). | |
5 | Such pressures are very small in the context of neutron stars. For iron at room temperature they correspond to a density of about 8.2 g cm^{–3}, in comparison to 7.86 g cm^{–3} under normal atmospheric pressure [42]. | |
6 | For a body-centered–cubic lattice, the lattice spacing is related to the Wigner–Seitz radius by . | |
7 | The Fermi surface is the surface in -space defined by . Note that, in general, it is not spherical. | |
8 | In the case of fermionic superfluids, the superfluid particles are fermion pairs. | |
9 | For a proton superconductor, and , where and are the proton mass and proton electric charge, respectively. | |
10 | For instance at , while . | |
11 | Entrainment effects disappear as goes to zero since so that according to Equation (180). | |
12 | This assumption may not remain valid in the “nuclear pasta” layers at the bottom of the crust discussed in Section 3.3. | |
13 | Ion contribution to can be important in the very outer layers with , where | |
14 | The gyromagnetic frequency of electrons should not be confused with the electron cyclotron frequency entering the formula for the energies of the Landau levels; see Section 2. |
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