List of Footnotes

1 Lattice energy including finite size effects is given by Equation (41View Equation). Even at the bottom of the outer crust finite size effects represent a small correction to the lattice energy, less than 1%.
2 “free” means here that the electrons are not bound. However, they are interacting with other electrons and with the atomic lattice.
3 We restrict ourselves to type I X-ray bursts. There are two X-ray bursters that are of type II, with bursts driven not by thermonuclear flashes on the neutron star surface, but originating in the accretion disk itself.
4 In this section, by “energy” we will usually mean energy of a unit volume (i.e. energy density).
5 Such pressures are very small in the context of neutron stars. For iron at room temperature they correspond to a density of about 8.2 g cm–3, in comparison to 7.86 g cm–3 under normal atmospheric pressure [42].
6 For a body-centered–cubic lattice, the lattice spacing a is related to the Wigner–Seitz radius Rcell by a = 2(π∕3)1∕3Rcell.
7 The Fermi surface is the surface in k-space defined by ε(kkk) = μ. Note that, in general, it is not spherical.
8 In the case of fermionic superfluids, the superfluid particles are fermion pairs.
9 For a proton superconductor, m = 2mp and q = 2e, where mp and e are the proton mass and proton electric charge, respectively.
10 For instance at T = 0, n𝒮 = n while nΨ â‰ƒ 0.1n.
11 Entrainment effects disappear as T goes to zero since m ⋆(T = 0) = m so that ppp = mvvv according to Equation (180View Equation).
12 This assumption may not remain valid in the “nuclear pasta” layers at the bottom of the crust discussed in Section 3.3.
13 Ion contribution to η can be important in the very outer layers with 4 −3 ρ < 10 g cm, where η ≈ ηN
14 The gyromagnetic frequency of electrons should not be confused with the electron cyclotron frequency ω = eB∕m c ce e entering the formula for the energies of the Landau levels; see Section 2.