Based on a number of all-sky surveys carried out in the 1990s, the scale factor approach has been used to derive the characteristics of the true normal and millisecond pulsar populations and is based on the sample of pulsars within 1.5 kpc of the Sun [247]. Within this region, the selection effects are well understood and easier to quantify than in the rest of the Galaxy. These calculations should therefore give a reliable local pulsar population estimate.

The 430-MHz luminosity distributions obtained from this analysis are shown in Figure 17. For the
normal pulsars, integrating the corrected distribution above 1 mJy kpc^{2} and dividing by (1.5)^{2} kpc^{2}
yields a local surface density, assuming a beaming model [39], of 156±31 pulsars kpc^{–2} for 430-MHz
luminosities above 1 mJy kpc^{2}. The same analysis for the millisecond pulsars, assuming a mean beaming
fraction of 75% [205], leads to a local surface density of 38±16 pulsars kpc^{–2} also for 430-MHz luminosities
above 1 mJy kpc^{2}.

Integrating the local surface densities of pulsars over the whole Galaxy requires a knowledge of the
presently rather uncertain Galactocentric radial distribution [166, 223]. One approach is to
assume that pulsars have a radial distribution similar to that of other stellar populations and to
scale the local number density with this distribution in order to estimate the total Galactic
population. The corresponding local-to-Galactic scaling is 1000±250 kpc^{2} [310]. This implies a
population of 160,000 active normal pulsars and 40,000 millisecond pulsars in the
Galaxy.

Based on these estimates, we are in a position to deduce the corresponding rate of formation or
birth-rate required to sustain the observed population. From the diagram in Figure 3, we infer a
typical lifetime for normal pulsars of 10^{7} yr, corresponding to a Galactic birth rate of
1 per 60 yr – consistent with the rate of supernovae [382]. As noted in Section 2.2, the
millisecond pulsars are much older, with ages close to that of the Universe (we assume here
= 13.8 Gyr [405]). Taking the maximum age of the millisecond pulsars to be , we infer a mean
birth rate of at least 1 per 345,000 yr. This is consistent, within the uncertainties, of other
studies of the millisecond pulsar population [110, 350] and with the birth-rate of low-mass X-ray
binaries [234, 190].

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