Living Reviews in Relativity

"Probes and Tests of Strong-Field Gravity with Observations in the Electromagnetic Spectrum"
by
Dimitrios Psaltis  

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Abstract
1 Introduction
2 The motivation for strong-field tests
3 Astrophysical and Cosmological Settings of Strong Gravitational Fields
3.1 When is a gravitational field strong?
3.2 A parameter space for tests of gravity
3.3 Probing versus testing strong-field gravity
4 Probing Strong Gravitational Fields with Astrophysical Objects
4.1 Black-hole images
4.2 Continuum spectroscopy of accreting black holes
4.3 Line spectroscopy of accreting compact objects
4.4 The fast variability of accreting compact objects
5 The Need for a Theoretical Framework for Strong-Field Gravity Tests
6 Current Tests of Strong-Field Gravity with Neutron Stars
6.1 Brans–Dicke gravity and the orbital decay of binary systems with neutron stars
6.2 Second-order scalar-tensor gravity and radio pulsars
6.3 Second-order scalar-tensor gravity and X-ray observations of accreting neutron stars
7 Going Beyond Einstein
8 Acknowledgements
Open References References
Footnotes
Figures