When an electromagnetic wave interacts with an optical system, all of its parameters can be changed as a result. Typically optical components are designed such that, ideally, they only affect one of the parameters, i.e., either the amplitude or the polarisation or the shape. Therefore, it is convenient to derive separate descriptions concerning each parameter. This section introduces the coupling of the complex field amplitude at optical components. Typically, the optical components are described in the simplest possible way, as illustrated by the use of abstract schematics such as those shown in Figure 2.
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