So far we have considered the electromagnetic field to be monochromatic. This has allowed us to compute light-field amplitudes in a quasi-static optical setup. In this section, we introduce the frequency of the light as a new degree of freedom. In fact, we consider a field consisting of a finite and discrete number of frequency components. We write this as

with complex amplitude factors , as the angular frequency of the light field and . In many cases the analysis compares different fields at one specific location only, in which case we can set and write In the following sections the concept of light modulation is introduced. As this inherently involves light fields with multiple frequency components, it makes use of this type of field description. Again we start with the two-mirror cavity to illustrate how the concept of modulation can be used to model the effect of mirror motion.
3.1 Modulation of light fields

3.2 Phase modulation

3.3 Frequency modulation

3.4 Amplitude modulation

3.5 Sidebands as phasors in a rotating frame

3.6 Phase modulation through a moving mirror

3.7 Coupling matrices for beams with multiple frequency components

3.8 Finesse examples

3.8.1 Modulation index

3.8.2 Mirror modulation

3.2 Phase modulation

3.3 Frequency modulation

3.4 Amplitude modulation

3.5 Sidebands as phasors in a rotating frame

3.6 Phase modulation through a moving mirror

3.7 Coupling matrices for beams with multiple frequency components

3.8 Finesse examples

3.8.1 Modulation index

3.8.2 Mirror modulation

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