In this section we introduce interferometers as length sensing devices. In particular, we explain how the Fabry–Pérot interferometer and the Michelson interferometer can be used for high-precision measurements and that both require a careful control of the base length (which is to be measured) in order to yield their large sensitivity. In addition, we briefly introduce the general concepts of error signals and transfer functions, which are used to describe most essential features of length sensing and control.

6.1 Error signals and transfer functions

6.2 Fabry–Pérot length sensing

6.3 The Pound–Drever–Hall length sensing scheme

6.4 Michelson length sensing

6.5 The Schnupp modulation scheme

6.6 Finesse examples

6.6.1 Cavity power and slope

6.6.2 Michelson with Schnupp modulation

6.2 Fabry–Pérot length sensing

6.3 The Pound–Drever–Hall length sensing scheme

6.4 Michelson length sensing

6.5 The Schnupp modulation scheme

6.6 Finesse examples

6.6.1 Cavity power and slope

6.6.2 Michelson with Schnupp modulation

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