In this section we discuss a number of observational signatures of dark energy models based on metric f (R) gravity. Our main interest is to distinguish these models from the CDM model observationally. In particular we study the evolution of matter density perturbations as well as the gravitational potential to confront f (R) models with the observations of large-scale structure (LSS) and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The effect on weak lensing will be discussed in Section 13.1 in more general modified gravity theories including f (R) gravity.
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