9 Acknowledgements

We would like to express our gratitude to our many colleagues who have either collaborated with us on this manuscript or given us their wisdom. First among the many people who have helped us with suggestions, comments, and constructive criticisms, we must thank Craig B. Markwardt of GSFC, whose enthusiastic contribution to the Pioneer Doppler data recovery efforts was matched by the thoroughness with which he reviewed and commented on this manuscript. We also thank John D. Anderson, Hansjörg Dittus, Claus Lämmerzahl, Agnès Levy, John Moffat, and Serge Reynaud, for their encouraging comments and suggestions on this manuscript.

We specifically thank Sami Asmar, Curt J. Cutler, William M. Folkner, Timothy P. McElrath, Robert A. Jacobson, Michael M. Watkins, and James G. Williams of JPL, who provided us with encouragement and valuable comments while this manuscript was in preparation. We also thank Jordan Ellis, Gene L. Goltz, and Neil A. Mottinger of JPL for their help in obtaining, understanding and conditioning of the Pioneer Doppler data.

We are grateful to Gary Kinsella of JPL and Siu-Chun Lee and Daniel S. Lok of Applied Sciences Laboratory who benefited us with their insightful comments and suggestions regarding the thermal modeling of Pioneer spacecraft. Louis K. Scheffer of Cadence Design Systems contributed with useful observations on the thermal modeling, design and analysis.

Invaluable information on the history, spacecraft design and mission operations of the Pioneers 10 and 11, as well as the structure of their telemetry data, came from Lawrence Lasher, Larry Kellogg and David Lozier formerly of the NASA Ames Research Center.

It is our special pleasure to thank the members of the Pioneer Explorer Collaboration (POC) that conducted an extensive Pioneer anomaly investigation at the ISSI for many fruitful discussions of various aspects of the study of the anomaly. In particular, in addition to our colleagues on the POC already mentioned above, our wholehearted thanks are going to Orfeu Bertolami, Francois Bondu, Bruno Christophe, Jean-Michel Courty, Denis Defrere, Jonathan Fitt, Frederico Francisco, Bernard Foulon, Paolo Gill, Stefanie Grotjan, Eva Hackmann, Ulrich Johann, Meike List, Clovis J. De Matos, Gilles Mètris, Laura Mulin, Øystein Olsen, Jorge Paramos, Sergei Podgrebenko, Andreas Rathke, Benny Rievers, Wolfgang Seboldt, Stephan Theil, Paolo Tortora, Pierre Touboul, Patrick Vrancken, Peter Wolf and many others.

Our gratitude goes to Michael H. Salamon of NASA and Hans Mark of University of Texas in Austin who have kindly provided us with encouragement, stimulating conversations, and support during various phases of our work.

We also thank The Planetary Society for support and, in particular, Louis D. Freidman, Charlene M. Anderson, and Bruce Betts for their interest, stimulating conversations and encouragement.

This work was partially performed at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI), Bern, Switzerland, when both of us visited ISSI as part of an International Team program. In this respect we thank Roger M. Bonnet, Vittorio Manno, Brigitte Schutte, and Saliba F. Saliba of ISSI for their hospitality and support.

Finally, we would like to thank Living Reviews in Relativity and especially Bernard F. Schutz and Clifford M. Will for the rewarding opportunity to prepare this manuscript.

The work described here, in part, was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

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