Living Reviews in Relativity

"The Pioneer Anomaly"
Slava G. Turyshev and Viktor T. Toth  

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1 Introduction
2 The Pioneer 10 and 11 Project
2.1 The Pioneer 10 and 11 missions
2.2 The Pioneer spacecraft
2.3 Spacecraft operating history
2.4 Thermal control subsystem
3 Pioneer Data Acquisition and Preparation
3.1 The Deep Space Network
3.2 Acquisition of radiometric Doppler data
3.3 Available Doppler data
3.4 Doppler observables and data preparation
3.5 Pioneer telemetry data
4 Navigation of the Pioneer Spacecraft
4.1 Models for gravitational forces acting on a spacecraft
4.2 Light times and time scales
4.3 Nongravitational forces external to the spacecraft
4.4 Nongravitational forces of on-board origin
4.5 Effects on the radio signal
4.6 Modeling the radiometric Doppler observable
4.7 Orbit determination and parameter estimation
5 The Original 1995 – 2002 Study of the Pioneer Anomaly
5.1 The early evidence for the anomaly and the original study
5.2 The 2002 formal solution for the anomalous acceleration
5.3 Sources of systematic error external to the spacecraft
5.4 Sources of systematic error internal to the spacecraft
5.5 Computational systematics
5.6 Error budget and the final 2002 result
6 Efforts to Explain and Study the Anomaly
6.1 Unmodeled forces external to the spacecraft
6.2 Possibility for new physics? Modified gravity theories
6.3 Cosmologically-motivated mechanisms
6.4 Effects on the radio signal
6.5 Unmodeled forces of on-board origin
6.6 Miscellaneous mechanisms
6.7 Search for independent confirmation
6.8 A mission to explore the Pioneer anomaly
7 Current Status of the Study of the Pioneer Anomaly
7.1 Independent verifications
7.2 Unresolved questions
7.3 An approach to finding the origin of the Pioneer anomaly
7.4 The thermal recoil force
8 Conclusions
9 Acknowledgements
A Pioneer Spacecraft Geometry
B Format of the Orbit Data Files (ODF)
C Master Data Records
D Selected Engineering and Science Instrument Telemetry Words
Open References References