List of Figures

View Image Figure 1:
From left to right, the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 retroreflector arrays. (Image credits: NASA.)
View Image Figure 2:
The Russian Lunokhod 1 lander with the French built retroreflector array sticking out the left side. (Image credits: Lavochkin Association / NASA.)
View Image Figure 3:
Improvements in the ground station technology over the past 40 years have increased the range precision by 2 orders of magnitude. Uncertainties associated with the existing retroreflectors are now becoming a limitation. (Image credits: Thomas Murphy.)
View Image Figure 4:
Location of the lunar retroreflector arrays. The three Apollo arrays are labeled AP and the two Luna arrays are labeled LUN. ORI and SHK show the potential location of two additional sites that would aid in strengthening the geometric coverage.
View Image Figure 5:
Worldwide distribution of satellite laser ranging stations participating in the International Laser Ranging Service [58]. (Image credits: ILRS.)
View Image Figure 6:
Example data from APOLLO from the Apollo 15 array on November 19, 2007, in which 6624 photons were collected in a 5000 shot run. The raw time events are shown in the top plot (with the initial predicted round trip time subtracted). The bottom plot shows the distribution of the outgoing pulses, which when convoluted with the retroreflector tilt is consistent with the measured returns shown in the central plot. The trapezoidal overplot represents the temporal spread due to the orientation of the retroreflector at the time of the observation [43]. (Image credits: Thomas Murphy.)
View Image Figure 7:
A 10 cm solid cube corner reflector was recently qualified for the lunar environment. Also shown for comparison is a 3.8 cm Apollo engineering model cube corner [11]. (Image credits: Douglas Currie.)
View Image Figure 8:
Temperature fluctuations in the lunar regolith as a function of depth from Apollo 15 and 17 measurements. Hatched areas show day-night temperature fluctuations. Below about 80 cm there was no observable temperature fluctuation due to the lunar day-night temperature cycles [32].
View Image Figure 9:
An Asynchronous Laser Transponder is under development at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that is compatible with the Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging (NGSLR) system [22].
View Image Figure 10:
NASA’s NGSLR system is being used to laser range to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) orbiting the moon [33]. (Image credits: Tom Zagwodzki / GSFC.)