7 Why Are The Constants Just So?

The numerical values of the fundamental constants are not determined by the laws of nature in which they appear. One can wonder why they have the values we observe. In particular, as pointed out by many authors (see below), the constants of nature seem to be fine tuned [317]. Many physicists take this fine-tuning to be an explanandum that cries for an explanans, hence following Hoyle [258] who wrote that “one must at least have a modicum of curiosity about the strange dimensionless numbers that appear in physics.”

 7.1 Universe and multiverse approaches
 7.2 Fine-tunings and determination of the anthropic range
 7.3 Anthropic predictions

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