7.2 Fine-tunings and determination of the anthropic range

As we have discussed in the previous sections, the outcome of many physical processes are strongly dependent on the value of the fundamental constants. One can always ask the scientific question of what would change in the world around us if the values of some constants were changed, hence doing some counterfactual cosmology in order to determine the range within which the universe would have developed complex physics and chemistry, what is usually thought to be a prerequisit for the emergence of complexity and life (we emphasize the difficulty of this exercise when it goes beyond small and local deviations from our observed universe and physics, see, e.g., [245] for a possibly life supporting universe without weak interaction). In doing so, one should consider the fundamental parameters entering our physical theory but also the cosmological parameters.

First there are several constraints that the fundamental parameters listed in Table 1 have to satisfy in order for the universe to allow for complex physics and chemistry. Let us stress, in a non-limiting way, some examples.

Other coincidences involve also the physical properties, not only of the physical theories, but also of our universe, i.e., the cosmological parameters summarized in Table 4. Let us remind some examples.

These are just a series of examples. For a multi-parameter study of the anthropic bound, we refer, e.g., to [485] and to [243] for a general anthropic investigation of the standard model parameters.

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