This is a revised and updated version of the article from 2005. A number of new sections on the Einstein–Vlasov system have been added, e.g., on the formation of black holes and trapped surfaces, on self-similar solutions, on the structure of static solutions, on Buchdahl type inequalities, on the stability of cosmological solutions, and on axisymmetric solutions. Some of the previous sections have been significantly extended. The number of references has increased from 121 to 197.
Living Rev. Relativity 14, (2011), 4
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