
Abstract 
1 
Introduction 
2 
The Missing Mass Problem in a Nutshell 
3 
A Brief
Overview of the CDM Cosmological Model 

3.1 
Dark Energy
() 

3.2 
Cold Dark Matter (CDM) 
4 
Some Challenges for the CDM
Model 

4.1 
Coincidences 

4.2 
Unobserved predictions 

4.3 
Unpredicted
observations 
5 
Milgrom’s Empirical Law and “Kepler Laws” of Galactic
Dynamics 

5.1 
Milgrom’s law and the dielectric analogy 

5.2 
Galactic
Keplerlike laws of motion 
6 
Milgrom’s Law as a Modification of
Classical Dynamics: MOND 

6.1 
Modified inertia or modified gravity:
Nonrelativistic actions 

6.2 
The interpolating function 

6.3 
The external field
effect 

6.4 
MOND in the solar system 

6.5 
MOND in rotationallysupported
stellar systems 

6.6 
MOND in pressuresupported stellar systems 
7 
Relativistic
MOND Theories 

7.1 
Scalartensor kessence 

7.2 
Stratified theory 

7.3 
Original
TensorVectorScalar theory 

7.4 
Generalized TensorVectorScalar
theory 

7.5 
BiScalarTensorVector theory 

7.6 
Nonminimal scalartensor
formalism 

7.7 
Generalized EinsteinAether theories 

7.8 
Bimetric
theories 

7.9 
Dipolar dark matter 

7.10 
Nonlocal theories and other
ideas 
8 
Gravitational Lensing in Relativistic MOND 

8.1 
Strong
lensing by galaxies 

8.2 
Weak lensing by galaxies 

8.3 
Strong and
weak lensing by galaxy clusters 

8.4 
Weak lensing by largescale
structure 
9 
MOND and Cosmology 

9.1 
Expansion history 

9.2 
Largescale
structure and Cosmic Microwave Background 
10 
Summary and
Discussion 
11 
Acknowledgements 

References 

Footnotes 

Figures 

Tables 