
Abstract 
1 
Introduction 

1.1 
Classes of effective field theories 

1.2 
Gauge fields as
Kaluza–Klein vectors 
2 
Extremal Black Holes as Isolated Systems 

2.1 
Properties
of extremal black holes 

2.2 
Nearhorizon geometries of static extremal
black holes 

2.3 
Nearhorizon of extremal spinning geometries 

2.4 
Explicit
nearhorizon geometries 

2.5 
Entropy 

2.6 
Temperature and chemical
potentials 

2.7 
Nearextremal nearhorizon geometries 

2.8 
Uniqueness
of stationary nearhorizon geometries 

2.9 
Absence of bulk dynamics
in nearhorizon geometries 
3 
TwoDimensional Conformal Field
Theories 

3.1 
Cardy’s formula 

3.2 
DLCQ and chiral limit of CFTs 

3.3 
Long
strings and symmetric orbifolds 
4 
Microscopic Entropy of Extremal
Black Holes 

4.1 
Boundary conditions and asymptotic symmetry
algebra 

4.2 
Absence of asymptotic symmetries 

4.3 
Virasoro algebra
and central charge 

4.4 
Microscopic counting of the entropy 
5 
Scattering
from NearExtremal Black Holes 

5.1 
Nearextremal Kerr–Newman black
holes 

5.2 
Macroscopic greybody factors 

5.3 
Macroscopic greybody factors
close to extremality 

5.4 
Microscopic greybody factors 

5.5 
Microscopic
accounting of superradiance 
6 
Hidden Symmetries of NonExtremal
Black Holes 

6.1 
Scalar wave equation in Kerr–Newman 

6.2 
Scalar
wave equation in Kerr–Newman–AdS 

6.3 
Nearregion scalarwave
equation 

6.4 
Local symmetries 

6.5 
Symmetry
breaking to 

6.6 
Entropy matching 
7 
Summary and Open
Problems 

7.1 
Summary 

7.2 
Set of open problems 
8 
Acknowledgments 

References 

Footnotes 