4 Dynamics of Boson Stars

In this section, the formation, stability and dynamical evolution of boson stars are discussed. One approach to the question of stability considers small perturbations around an equilibrium configuration, so that the system remains in the linearized regime. Growing modes indicate instability. However, a solution can be linearly stable and yet have a nonlinear instability. One example is Minkowski space, which, under small perturbations, relaxes back to flat, but, for sufficiently large perturbations, leads to black-hole formation, decidedly not Minkowski. To study nonlinear stability, other methods are needed. In particular, full numerical evolutions of the Einstein–Klein–Gordon (EKG) equations are quite useful for understanding the dynamics of boson stars.

 4.1 Gravitational stability
  4.1.1 Linear stability analysis
  4.1.2 Non-linear stability of single boson stars
 4.2 Dynamics of binary boson stars

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