Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

Piotr T. Chruściel 
University of Vienna

'External link'
João Lopes Costa 
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Lisboa, Portugal
Centro de Análise Matemática, Geometria e Sistemas Dinâmicos,
Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Portugal

Markus Heusler 
ITP, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich
(at the time of writing original 1998 version)

Major update of lrr-1998-6 (see article history and change log for details.)


The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole–equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein–Maxwell system.

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