One approach in the construction of absorbing boundary conditions is based on suitable series or Fourier expansions of the solution, and derives a hierarchy of local boundary conditions with increasing order of accuracy [153, 46, 240]. Typically, such higher-order local boundary conditions involve solving differential equations at the boundary surface, where the order of the differential equation is increasing with the order of the accuracy. This problem can be dealt with by introducing auxiliary variables at the boundary surface [207, 208].
The starting point for a slightly different approach is an exact nonlocal boundary condition, which involves the convolution with an appropriate integral kernel. A method based on an efficient approximation of this integral kernel is then implemented; see, for instance, [16, 17] for the case of the 2D and 3D flat wave equations and [271, 270, 272] for the Regge–Wheeler  and Zerilli  equations describing linear gravitational waves on a Schwarzschild background. Although this method is robust, very accurate and stable, it is based on detailed knowledge of the solutions, which might not always be available in more general situations.
In the following, we illustrate some aspects of the problem of constructing absorbing boundary conditions on some simple examples . Specifically, we construct local absorbing boundary conditions for the wave equation with a spherical outer boundary at radius .
Consider first the one-dimensional case,
Generalizing the previous example to higher dimensions is a nontrivial task. This is due to the fact that there are infinitely many propagation directions for outgoing waves, and not just two as in the one-dimensional case. Ideally, one would like to control all the propagation directions , which are outgoing at the boundary (, where is the unit outward normal to the boundary), but this is obviously difficult. Instead, one can try to control specific directions (starting with the one that is normal to the outer boundary). Here, we illustrate the method of  on the three-dimensional wave equation,
When the background is curved, it is not always possible to construct in- and outgoing solutions explicitly, as in the previous example. Therefore, it is not even clear how a hierarchy of absorbing boundary conditions should be formulated. However, in many applications the spacetime is asymptotically flat, and if the boundary surface is placed sufficiently far from the strong field region, one can assume that the metric is a small deformation of the flat, Minkowski metric. To first order in with the ADM mass and the areal radius of the outer boundary, these correction terms are given by those of the Schwarzschild metric, and approximate in- and outgoing solutions for all modes can again be computed .25 The terms in the background metric induce two kind of corrections in the in- and outgoing solutions . The first is a curvature correction term, which just adds terms to the coefficients in the sum of Eq. (5.144). This term is local and still obeys Huygens’ principle. The second term is fast decaying (it decays as ) and describes the backscatter off the curvature of the background. As a consequence, it is nonlocal (it depends on the past history of the unperturbed solution) and violates Huygens’ principle.
By construction, the boundary conditions are perfectly absorbing for outgoing waves with angular momentum number , including their curvature corrections to first order in . If the first-order correction terms responsible for the backscatter are taken into account, then are not perfectly absorbing anymore, but the spurious reflections arising from these correction terms have been estimated in  to decay at least as fast as for monochromatic waves with wave number satisfying .
The well-posedness of higher-order absorbing boundary conditions for wave equations on a curved background can be established by assuming the localization principle and the Laplace method . Some applications to general relativity are discussed in Sections 6 and 10.3.1.
Living Rev. Relativity 15, (2012), 9
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