Part 1
Dark Energy

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Background evolution
 1.2.1 Parametrization of the background evolution
1.3 Perturbations
 1.3.1 Cosmological perturbation theory
 1.3.2 Modified growth parameters
1.4 Models of dark energy and modified gravity
 1.4.1 Quintessence
 1.4.2 K-essence
 1.4.3 A definition of modified gravity
 1.4.4 Coupled dark-energy models
 1.4.5 Phantom crossing
 1.4.6 f(R) gravity
 1.4.7 Massive gravity and higher-dimensional models
 1.4.8 Einstein Aether and its generalizations
 1.4.9 The Tensor-Vector-Scalar theory of gravity
1.5 Generic properties of dark energy and modified gravity models
 1.5.1 To which precision should we measure w?
 1.5.2 The effective anisotropic stress as evidence for modified gravity
 1.5.3 Parameterized frameworks for theories of modified gravity
1.6 Nonlinear aspects
 1.6.1 N-body simulations of dark energy and modified gravity
 1.6.2 The spherical collapse model
1.7 Observational properties of dark energy and modified gravity
 1.7.1 General remarks
 1.7.2 Observing modified gravity with weak lensing
 1.7.3 Observing modified gravity with redshift surveys
 1.7.4 Cosmological bulk flows
1.8 Forecasts for Euclid
 1.8.1 A review of forecasts for parametrized modified gravity with Euclid
 1.8.2 Euclid surveys
 1.8.3 Forecasts for the growth rate from the redshift survey
 1.8.4 Weak lensing non-parametric measurement of expansion and growth rate
 1.8.5 Testing the nonlinear corrections for weak lensing forecasts
 1.8.6 Forecasts for the dark-energy sound speed
 1.8.7 Weak lensing constraints on f(R) gravity
 1.8.8 Forecast constraints on coupled quintessence cosmologies
 1.8.9 Extra-Euclidean data and priors
1.9 Summary and outlook

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