Major update published on 24 September 2014
One of the key features of Living Reviews is that its articles are kept up-to-date by their authors. A major update is considered a new publication. As such it is again subject to peer review and is issued with a new publication number.
Major revision, updated and expanded. The
number of references has increased from 179 to 242.
In addition, the order of the article has been extensively rearranged, following an updated introductory
section. A few sections (mostly where relatively little progress has been made) have been changed relatively
little apart from correction of errors – i.e., the introduction and the sections on S-Z effect and gravitational
- A new section (2.1) on megamaser cosmography was added, as this has developed significantly
since the first edition.
- Section 3 on the classical distance ladder has been extensively re-written. It now focuses much
less on the detailed disagreements based on the metallicity dependence of the P-L relationship
of Cepheids, since these have been superseded to a large extent by better calibration. Instead,
more space is devoted to developments since 2007.
- The gravitational-lensing section (2.2) has been extensively updated and much of the detail
from pre-2007 papers has been removed in favour of discussion of developments since 2007,
particularly the Suyu et al. papers and an update on the discussion of mass degeneracies.
- The section on cosmological measurement (4) has been updated, mainly because of the advent
of Planck since the first edition.
- A new conclusion (5) has been added to try to tie together the results from different